b. The Inclusion of Islamic and Sufi Movement in Indonesia (The Spread of Islam in South Sulawesi)

History of Islam in Indonesia, until this day is still a long debate from the historians, there is the opinion of Islam into Indonesia originating from India, while other parts states Islam into Indonesia from the Arabic directly.  However, any opinion state that Islam is entering through the Arabian peninsula, can not deny that India must have passed, because the growing transportation tool at that time still use a sailboat that rely on wind power as push factor their boats.  And the need for supplies journey where they need to seek shelter and food as fresh water supplies on the road, thus forming a stop such ports in Gujarat, Patani, Perlak, and others which led to settlements of people of Islamic, Arab and indigenous breed. 

 Around the 4th  and 5th Century Hegira, Islamic style in India and Persia changed to Sufi-philosophical (Sufi-philosophy), to which these patterns carry over to Indonesia.  Subjects Ittihad, Hulul, and Wahdat al-Wujud embraced by some figures such as Hamzah Fansuri, Abdurrauf Singkel, Syamsuddin Pasai, Sheikh Siti Jenar, and others.  Even in Java itself heavily influenced by the Sunni tasawwuf developed by al-Ghazali, who took a very important role in spreading Islam throughout Indonesia where Sufis were instrumental maintaining the existence and elan-vital of Islam, who then pass it without a military conquest, attitude of compromise and blend in with the local culture.

 One interesting thing in the history of tasawwuf in Indonesia is the tendency of confrontation between the conventional Sufi ideology (followers of al-Ghazali) and the ideology of philosophical Sufism (Ibn Arabi's followers who tend toward Pantheism) either in the paper relics in Java since the sixteenth century or the paper relics in Aceh in XVII century. In Java, known as Pantheism understand Manunggaling Kawula Gusti (wahdat al-wujud) as popularized by Sheikh Siti Jenar (eventually sentenced to death by Wali Songo because it was considered heretical and drifting away from Islam), while in Aceh more familiar with the concept of the Seven Dignity ( tajalli) popularized by Hamzah Fansuri and his student Syamsuddin Pasai.

Tasawwuf developments in Indonesia, next took the congregation as a medium.  This is what affects the birth and rise of Islam in eastern Indonesia, especially in South Sulawesi. Before the coming of the Islamic religion, settled some of the people in Luwu already have genuine beliefs, and calling Substance Almighty (Dewata SeuwaE) term which is believed as a determinant of the fate of human merits.  The term of the Dewata SeuwaE shows that they have the basics of monotheistic belief, so that before the arrival of a trio of Minangkabau muballigh   had no pre-conditions that support the acceptance of Islam on society.  The existence of these preconditions open the possibility of receipt of the religion of Islam as a faith community with no damaging social structure institution that already exists.

 The inclusion of Islam in a peaceful Luwu.  When Datuk Sulaiman with his two friends, who ruled in Luwu is Patiarase, a Pajung (title king Luwu) known wise, just and loving toward people and his royal guest. Three muballigh who came also to be friendly, do not show any tendency to force acceptance of the minutes carried.
 Apparently the three men progenitor (ulama) of the Minangkabau adjusted spread the Islamic religion and cultural traditions that evolved in the community of South Sulawesi.   Datuk Ribandang  propagate the Islamic religion emphasizes the aspects of Shariah, by making the Gowa-Tallo as the central development propaganda.  Datuk Tiro who developed the preaching in Bulukumba emphasis on aspects of Sufism.  Datuk Sulaiman who makes Pattimang, Malangke (now North Luwu territory) as a central aspect of preaching emphasizes the science of kalam and monotheism. 

 In the history of Islamization in South Sulawesi, Luwu who first receive the religion of Islam (1605) and Gowa (1605/1606), following the Wajo (1610), followed by Bone (1611). Finally, in 1620 the whole territory of the kingdoms of Bugis-Makassar had accepted Islam.  Islamization continues until the end by the year 1630 throughout the region in addition to Tana Toraja, South Sulawesi and Mamasa. 

With the enactment of Islam as the official religion of the kingdom then began the Islamic education in Palopo and Luwu entire empire.  The method is applied first is the method of dialogue.  According to Sanusi Daeng Mattata, the transfer process of religious values that are used Datok Solomon when initially convey the contents of the Islamic religion in Luwu and the surrounding dialogue.  The first dialogue held in the open so that many people witnessed.  In the dialogue which was attended by a number of these royal officials discussed about the Islamic view of worship, government, economics, social, and belief in the Creator.  The form of this dialogue until now still used primarily by the congregation Khalwatiyah Sammaniyah.

After King Luwu embraced Islam and declared Islam as the official religion of the kingdom, the basics of teaching that is focused on two aspects of tauhid (belief in Allah) and restrictions.  The prohibitions related to the habits of highly stressed communities, namely:
  1. Prohibited mappinang rakka (give offerings to anyone, like the devils and demons, and idols of other objects such as pantasa and saukang.
  2. Prohibited mammanu'-manu '(black magic).
  3. Prohibited mappolo-duty '(bertenung, black magic to know the fate)
  4. Prohibited mappakkere '(believing that something is sacred objects),
  5. Prohibited eating cammugu-mugu (pig)
  6. Prohibited pakkunesse drinking (liquor)
  7. Prohibited mappangaddi (adultery)
  8. Prohibited makan riba (interest receivable)
  9. Prohibited boto '(gambling). 


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